What are the primary methods of waste disposal in the industry ? 


Red mud is the primary waste associated with the bauxite industry.  The industry has instituted new mud disposal techniques that are environmentally friendly.  This is being done by dry and thick mud stacking.  These are processes in which thin layers of mud are spread on sloping beds to drain and evaporate to a high solid content. Clay sealed under-drain disposal lakes are also used.  They are designed to maintain zero discharge from the plant to the environment.


When is a penalty justified and how is it enforced?


The JBI monitors the industry on behalf of the NEPA and submits quarterly reports.  The NEPA reserves the right to independently monitor and investigate complaints following consultations with the JBI and to take action, which it deems appropriate.